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F6F-5 "Hellcat"

Shipborne Fighter

Grumman

Lt. Hamilton McWhorter III, an ace with ten Japanese kills, flew this F6F-5 Hellcat (9) from RANDOLPH (CV-15) in January of 1945. © Andrew Probert

Lt. Hamilton McWhorter III, an ace with ten Japanese kills, flew this F6F-5 Hellcat (9) from RANDOLPH (CV-15) in January of 1945. He was assigned to— VF-12 aboard the ESSEX class carrier.

The Grumman F6F Hellcat represented the main American carrier fighter of the Pacific War. Continuing in the Navy tradition of the F4F Wildcat, the plane was a single-seat single-engine mid-wing monoplane with a three-point landing gear. From the planes first combat introduction in the autumn of 1943, it proved itself easily the match for the Japanese Zero fighter.

The design featured an all-metal aluminum alloy skin except for skin except for control surfaces. It featured such improvements as a much more powerful engine which resulted in at least 50mph increased speed and 33% greater increase in rate of climb. It incorporated more modern design elements such as enclosed, wing wells for the landing gear. The larger wing provided more stability crucial to its aircraft carrier environment, particularly on landing.

The F6F Hellcat featured other improvements over the F4F such as a roomier cockpit with bulletproof front window (by the F6F-3) and entirely bulletproof canopy by the F6F-6. The heavy, bulletproof backing plate for the cockpit provided extra protection.

The engine was a powerful upgrade to the F4F, an air-cooled turbo-supercharged 18-cylinder Pratt and Whitney R2800 – 10 W “Double Wasp” design (two banks of 9 radial cylinders). The three-blade propeller was extra long to take advantage of the high-performance engine, clearing the ground by only 186 mm. The plane also featured a water-alcohol fuel injection system for extra bursts of speed.

The Bendix pressurized fuel system consisted of all self-sealing fuel tanks. The two wing tanks were augmented by a 75-gallon reserve fuel tank under the floor of the cockpit. The plane could add additional range via an optional 150-gallon exterior metal tank suspended beneath the fuselage and additional 50-gallon tanks under each half-wing.

The firepower of the Hellcat was also greater than that of the former F4F. Armament consisted of three Colt-Browning M2 12.7 mm machine guns in each wing with increased ammunition capacity. Beginning with some F6F-3Ns, and by the F6F-5, all Hellcats were equipped with two machine guns and one 20mm cannon in each wing. A wing bomb rack could accommodate two 227kg (for the F6F-3) or a single 454kg bomb (F6F-5). Beginning with the F6F-5 the Hellcat could carry six Mk.5 or Mk.6 unguided high velocity air-to-ground 127 mm. rockets under the wing.

English help by Peter Gunther

F6F-5 Specification
Crew 1
Dimensions
Wing span, m 13.06 (42 ft 10 in); 4.93 m with the combined wing
Wing area, 31.03 m² (334 ft²)
Length 10.24 m (33 ft 7 in)
Height 3.99 m (13 ft 1 in)
Powerplant
PE Pratt Whitney R-2800-10W Double Wasp 2,000 hp (1,500 kW)
at 5,151 m (16,900 ft)
Weight
Empty weight 4190 kg (9,238 lb)
Loaded weight 5714 kg (12,598 lb)
Maximum takeoff weight 6991 kg (15,415 lb)
Performance
Maximum speed at altitude 7130 m (23,400 ft) 611 km/h (380 mph)
Rate of climb 17.8 m/s (3,500 ft/min)
Wing loading 184 kg/m² (37.7 lb/ft²)
Power/mass 260 W/kg (0.16 hp/lb)
Time-to-altitude 6,100 m (20,000 ft) 7.7 min
Service ceiling, m 11,370 m (37,300 ft)
Service range 1,520 km (950 mi)
Maximum range 2,180 km (1,350 mi)

Armament

Guns:

  • 6x 0.50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns, 400 rounds/gun, or 2x 20 mm cannon, 225 rounds/gun
  • 4x 0.50 in (12.7 mm) Browning machine guns 400 rounds/gun

Rockets:

  • 6x 5 in (127 mm) HVARs or
  • 2x 11¾ in (298 mm) Tiny Tim unguided rockets
  • Bombs: 4,000 lb (1,800 kg) of ordnance, including:

Torpedoes:

  • 1x 2,000 lb (910 kg) bomb or
  • 1x Mk.13-3 torpedo under the centerline

Underwing bombs:

  • 1x 1,000 lb (450 kg) or
  • 2x 250 lb (110 kg)
  • 6x 100 lb (45 kg) v

References

  • "Encyclopedia of military engineering" /Aerospace Publising/
  • "American Warplanes of World War II" /under cor. David Donald/
  • "Shipborne Fighters of World War II" /Ivan Kudishin/
  • 'Flight Deck, US Navy Carrier Operations 1940-1945', by Al Adcock, A Squadron/Signal Publications/

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