Aviation of WWII
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Pilot`s Notes Wellington Pilot`s Notes



January 1944.


62. Engine failure during take-off

(i) With flaps 20 down the aircraft can be held straight if 115 m.p.h. (100 knots) I.A.S. has been attained.

(ii) Any bombs, depth-charges, or torpedoes should be jettisoned. The propeller of the dead engine should be feathered and the gills closed.

(iii) With the starboard engine failed it should be possible to climb away at about 31,000 lb. With the port engine failed performance is'slightly inferior.

63. Engine failure in flight

(i) Turn ON the fuel pressure balance cock (A). If the dead engine docs not pick up, showing that the fuel pump is not the cause of failure, turn OFF the cock. If it is desired to run the live engine on the tanks in the opposite wing, it is necessary for the crew to open the suction balance cock (B).

(ii) The propeller of the dead engine must be feathered and the gills closed.

(iii) Fly in M ratio at 2,500 r.p.m. and + 3 ½ lb./sq.in. boost (Mark III aircraft), or 2,400 r.p.m. and +6 lb./sq.in. boost (later Marks), at 125 m.p.h. (110 knots) I.A.S. (If using 87 octane fuel the r.p.m. and boost are 2,400 and 2½ lb./sq.in. respectively for all Marks of aircraft.) If necessary to maintain height, speed may be reduced to 120 m.p.h. (105 knots) I.A.S. Cylinder temperatures of the live engine must be watched and the gills opened as necessary. They should not be opened excessively as performance deteriorates. If temperatures do rise too high, increase speed.

Climbing boost and r.p.m. should not be exceeded except to prevent dangerous loss of height. In tropical conditions 125 m.p.h. (no knots) I.A.S. is the speed for minimum rate of descent.

(iv) To maintain height at climbing power when using 100 octane fuel, weight must be reduced to approximately 28,500 lb. by jettisoning all bombs, depth-charges, or torpedoes, and, if necessary, some of the fuel load (see Para. 68). At 120 m.p.h. (105 knots) I.A.S., it should be possible to maintain height at 2,000 feet at this weight in temperate conditions. With full rudder trim a small amount of bank is required at this speed to reduce foot load.

64. Feathering

(i) Rotol electric propellers:

(a) Set the feathering switch to FEATHER, (ft time is available, clo»e the throttle first and then use DEC. R.P.M.)

(b) Close the throttle immediately.

(c) Set the selector switch central.

(d) Switch off the ignition only when the engine has stopped.

(ii) Rotol hydraulic propellers:

(a) Set the propeller speed control fully back through the gate.

(b) Close the throttle immediately.

(c) Hold the button in until feathering is completed.

Switch off the ignition only when the engine has stopped.

(iii) D.H. Нуdromatic propellers:

(a) Hold the button in only long enough to ensure that it stays in by itself; then release it so that it can spring out when feathering is completed.

(b) Close the throttle immediately.

(c) Switch off the ignition only when the engine has stopped.

65. Unfeathering

(i) Rotol electric propellers:

(a) Set the throttle closed or slightly open, the propeller speed control fully down and switch on ignition.

(b) Set the feathering switch to NORMAL and hold the selector switch to INC. R.P.M. until about 1,000 r.p.m. are reached. Then set the selector switch to AUTO.

(ii) Rotol hydraulic propellers:

(e) Set the throttle closed or slightly open and switch on ignition.

(A) Set the propeller speed control just forward of the gate.

(c) Hold the button in until normal constant-speed operation is resumed. If unfeathering does not start when the button is depressed, set the propeller speed control slightly forward (to take up backlash).

(Hi) D.H. Hydromatic propellers:

(a) Set the throttle closed or slightly open, the propeller speed control fully back and switch on ignition.

(b) Hold the button in until r.p.m. reach 1,000 to 1,300

(c) If the propeller does not return to normal constant-speed operation, open the throttle slightly.

66. Undercarriage emergency operation

(i) If the undercarriage cannot be lowered in the normal way, either by the engine-driven pump or the hand-pump, it may be lowered by the independent emergency hydraulic system in the following manner:

(a) Leave the undercarriage selector lever DOWN.

(b) Operate the catch release to free the lever (82) near the handpump. Raise the lever to the EMERGENCY (upper-most) position and leave it there.

(c) Lower the handpump handle to engage with the catches at the base of the pump.

(d) Operate the handpump. At least 250 double strokes are required.

Note.—The emergency system will only lower the undercarriage. If will not raise the undercarriage nor operate the flaps or bomb doors. After using the emergency system the lever near the handpump may be returned to the normal position for an attempt to lower the flaps, but this will not be successful if the original failure of the main hydraulic system was due to loss of oil.

(ii) Should the green lights of the indicator not appear when the undercarriage is being lowered normally, it can be ascertained that the locks arc engaged by using the handpump with the selector lever set to EMERGENCY. The high resistance which will finally be felt on the pump handle is an indication that the jack pistons are at the end of their travel and that the folding links are past dead centre, it being safe, therefore, to land. Except for this case of emergency, use of the handpump is not to be encouraged when the engine pump is functioning.

67. Bomb and Depth-charge jettisoning

(i) Open the bomb doors.

(ii) Jettison any small bomb containers first by operating the switch (75) on the starboard side of the cockpit.

(iii) Jettison the bombs or depth-charges by pulling the handle (2) on the port side of the instrument panel.

(iv) Close the bomb doors.

68. Fuel jettisoning

(i) Fuel in the four main tanks only may be jettisoned by first unscrewing the air vent valve wheel (51) on the left of the instrument panel four turns and then rotating the jettison valve wheel (52) immediately above to open. On later aircraft the two valves are operated by a single control. After jettisoning, the valves must be closed to maintain buoyancy or prevent fire. They can be closed if necessary when only part of the fuel has been jettisoned.

(ii) The average rates of jettisoning are as follows:

(a) Flaps up at too m.p.h. (85 knots) I.A.S.: 100 gallons in 25 seconds.

(A) Flaps lowered 20° at 125 m.p.h. (110 knots) I.A.S.: 100 gallons in 20 seconds.

(c) Flaps fully down at 80 m.p.h. (70 knots) I.A.S.: 100 gallons in 15 seconds.

69. Parachute exits

When abandoning the aircraft by parachute the main entrance hatch and the starboard push-out panel immediately aft of the beam guns should be used as exits. Л foot lever at the starboard side of the main entrance hatch enables the door to be opened independently of the door release handle. To gain access to the starboard push-out panel, a wooden guard or cover, fixed to the frame by press-studs, must be pulled away. The cover is inscribed PULL OFF COVER FOR ACCESS TO EMERGENCY EXIT.

70. Crash exits

In addition to the foregoing exits, roof exits arc provided in the pilot's cockpit and at the sextant station. In the former, two outwardly-opening doors in the cockpit roof are released by a central lever and in the latter the sextant dome is released for opening downwards by either of two spring-loaded bolt levers at the front and rear of the mounting. These exits, together with the other unobstructed exits, can be used by the crew in the event of a crash-landing.

71. Air/sea rescue equipment

(i) A "J" type dinghy is stowed in the starboard engine nacelle and is secured by a painter of 150 lbs. breaking strength. It may be inflated and released by any of the following methods:

(a) Manually by pulling the handle inside the fuselage at the top of the rear face of the main spar, on the extreme starboard side. A sustained direct pull towards the centre of the aircraft is necessary.

(b) By ripping the fabric patch on the top surface of the starboard wing, about 2 feet from the fuselage side, immediately behind the main spar. This exposes a handle which is retained in spring clips immediately below the patch. A sustained pull upwards and inboard is necessary.

(c) Automatically by flooding of the immersion switch in the starboard engine nacelle.

(ii) Certain aircraft have a small stowage for the dinghy permitting only the following items to be stowed with the dinghy: topping-up bellows, leak stoppers and drogue. On these aircraft thi remaining air-sea rescue equipment is carried in a Type 5 and a Type 7 emergency packs (Stores References 27.C./1919 and /1931 respectively), these being stowed in the fuselage against the front spar. Their contents are given in the current Appendix A for the aircraft.

(iii) On most aircraft, however, the dinghy compartment is larger, having the rear portion of the stowage floor stepped down, and a special emergency pack is carried in the stepped-down portion of the stowage and secured to the dinghy life-line by a lanyard. In addition, a Type 7 emergency pack is stowed inside the fuselage, aft of the front spar.

72. Flotation gear

Fourteen inflatable flotation bags are stowed at the top of the bomb cells. These bags arc inflated from three CO2 cylinders stowed in the port and starboard inner planes, which are discharged separately by pulling each of three handles contained in a box attached to the rear of the spar centre section and covered by an inscribed tear-off patch.

An immersion switch, mounted immediately aft of the front turret, automatically inflates the flotation bags when immersed in salt water, but in view of the time lag and the facl that the bomb doors may collapse upon impact unless supported, the bags should be inflated by means of the manual controls while still in the air. Before inflating the flotation bags, the bomb doors must be opened and bombs, or depth charges, jettisoned and the doors then closed again.

Note. — Flotation gear is not fitted when torpedoes are carried.

73. Ditching

(i) Bombs, depth-charges, or torpedoes should he jettisoned and the bomb doors then closed.

(ii) The mid-under turret on Mk. XII and XIV aircraft should be retracted.

(iii) The flotation bags should, if possible, be inflated at least five minutes before ditching, hut not above 3,000 feet in altitude. A member of the crew should check by examination through the windows at the rear end of the bomb cell that the bags have been properly inflated and advise the captain accordingly.

(iv) Flaps should he lowered 300.

74. Turret external rotation

To guin access to them in an emergency, the front (if fitted) and rear gun turrets can be rotated to the central position by means of nearby external rotation valves in the hydraulic supply lines on the port and starboard side» of the fuselage respectively.

Each valve is brought into operation by forcing a wire-locked oil supply change-over lever into the ON position; the turret can then be rotated in either direction by operating the lever on the other end of the valve unit.

75. Fire extinguishers

Each engine nacelle is fitted with a Graviner-type fire extinguishing system operated by a corresponding pushbutton (19) on the instrument panel. Automatic operation is by impact and gravity switches inside the fuselage. One or more portable extinguishers are stowed at convenient points within the fuselage.