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Pilot`s Notes Wellington Pilot`s Notes

WELLINGTON III, X, XI, XII, XIII AND XIV

PILOT'S NOTES

2nd Edition. This edition supersedes all previous issues. January 1944.

NOTES TO USERS

This publication is divided into five parts: Descriptive, Handling, Operating Data, Emergencies, and Illustrations. Part I gives only a brief description of the controls with which the pilot should be acquainted.

These Notes are complementary to A.P.2095 Pilot's Notes General and assume a thorough knowledge of its contents. All pilots should be in possession of a copy of A.P.2095 (see A.M.O. A93/+3).

Words in capital letters indicate the actual markings on the controls concerned.

Additional copies may be obtained from A.P.F.S.. Fulham Road, S.W.3, by application on R.A.F. Form 294a, in duplicate, quoting the number of this publication in full— A.P 1578C, K, L, M, N. & P.—P.N.

Comments and suggestions should be forwarded through the usual channels to the Air Ministry (D.T.F.).

DESCRIPTIVE

NOTE.—The numbers quoted in brackets after items in the text refer to the key numbers of the illustrations in Part V.

INTRODUCTION

1. The Wellingtons III and X arc equipped as medium bombers (some are used for training purposes), and the Wellingtons XI, XII, XIII and XIV for general reconnaissance duties with Coastal Command. The Mks. XI and XIII carry torpedoes, alternatively depth-charges, and operate by day; the Mks. XII and XIV are each fitted with a Leigh light in the mid-under turret and carry depth charges only. The corresponding Marks of Hercules engine are as follows:

Mark III MarkX Mark XI Mark XII Mark XIII Mark XIV

Hercules XI Hercules VI or XVI Hercules VI or XVI Hercules VI or XVI Hercules XVII Hercules XVII

Each is fitted with Rotol electric or de llavilland hydro-matic fully feathering propellers. Some Mk. III aircraft have Rotol hydraulic propellers.

FUEL AND OIL SYSTEMS (see Fig. 4)

2. Fuel tanks

(i) Normal tanks.—Two main tanks in each wing supply the feed pipe through non-return valves, and a tank in each nacelle supplies the same pipe through a cock controlled from the fuselage. These three tanks on each side supply the engine-driven pumps through main tank cocks (Cp

PART I—DESCRIPTIVE

and Cs), and the pumps supply the engines through corresponding master cocks (Ep and Es). The capacities of these tanks are as follows:

2 Front wing tanks 2 Rear wing tanks a Nacelle tanks..,

150 gallons each

167 gallons each

58 gallons each

(ii) Auxiliary tanks:

(a) Mk. III and X aircraft.—In addition to the normal tanks, an auxiliary self-sealing tank of 140 gallons capacity can be installed in each outer bomb cell. These tanks supply the main feed line for each engine through corresponding non-return valves and on-off cocks (Dp and Ds). Certain aircraft fitted with a high-capacity bomb beam carry an auxiliary tank of 295 gallons capacity in the bomb compartment and this is connected to the auxiliary tank cock (Ds.). Tropicaliscd Mk. X aircraft carry two 55-gallon tanks when on reinforcing flights.

(A) Mk. XI, XII, XIII and XIV aircraft.-Vp to three auxiliary tanks can be carried, one in each bomb cell. Fuel in these tanks flows through corresponding nonreturn valves and on-off cocks (Dc, Dp and Ds) into the suction balance pipe and so to the main feed lines. The following alternative tankagescan be carried:

(i) One 185-gallon tank in the centre bomb cell, (ii) Two 140-gallon tanks, one in each outer bomb cell.

(iii) One 185-gallon tank in the centre bomb cell and one 140-gallon tank in the starboard bomb cell (when only one torpedo is carried).

(iv) Three 185-gallon tanks, one in each bomb cell (for reinforcing flights).

The centre bomb cell tank is divided into two partially isolated cells. The three-way selector cock (Dc) allows fuel to be drawn from only one cell at a time, but on some aircraft the two cells arc connected separately to the two cocks Dp and Ds and can, therefore, be used simultaneously.

3. Balance cocks.—The fuel systems for the port and starboard engines are connected by a pressure balance cock (A) (63) and a suction balance cock (B). These cocks are normally kept shut, but the pressure balance cock (A) may be opened if failure of either engine pump is suspected, and the suction balance cock (B) may be opened to enable cither engine pump to be fed by tanks on the opposite side.

4. Tank cocks.—The pilot can shut off the fuel supply to an engine by closing the corresponding engine master cock (Ep or Es) (61). The pressure balance cock (A) is also under his control. The remainder of the cocks, however, arc under the control of the crew and are as follows:

(i) The main tank cocks (Cp and Cs), remotely controlled by handles at the port and starboard sides of the fuselage, immediately forward of the spar centre section, (it) The nacelle tank cocks controlled by cables beside the main tank cock handles. (iii) The suction balance cock (B) and the auxiliary tank cocks (Dc, Dp and Ds) immediately aft of the spar.

Note.—Cocks Cp, Cs and B are three-position cocks, but may be regarded as ON-OFF cocks, as two positions only arc used. Cock Dp on Mark X aircraft fitted with two 55-gallon tanks in the port bomb cell is a three-position cock.

5. Fuel handpump.—There is a fuel handpump aft of the spar for priming the fuel system (if necessary) and supplementing the supply of cither engine-driven pump. The handpump is connected between the suction and pressure balance pipes on the port side of the pressure balance cock (A); this cock must be open to feed the starboard engine from the handpump, and the suction balance cock (B) must be open for the handpump to draw from the starboard tanks. An ON-OFF cock (H) controls the supply from the suction balance pipe to the handpump.

6. Fuel gauges.—Contents gauges for all tanks except the nacelle and centre bomb cell tanks arc fitted. To obtain readings operate the pushbutton (9) on the pilot's instrument panel or the pushbutton near the gauges on the electrical panel.

7. Fuel pressure warning lights.—Two fuel pressure warning lights (22), one for each engine, are fitted dn the right-hand aide of the pilot's instrument panel and come on when the pressure drops below 1¼ lb./sq.in. They are not fitted on Mk. III aircraft.

8. Oil tanks.—Each engine has one oil tank, holding 16 gallons, mounted on the front of the nacelle fuel tank. An auxiliary oil tank in the fuselage, aft of the spar, for use on long-range flights, holds 15 gallons and incorporates a handpump to enable oil from the auxiliary tank to be transferred to either of the nacelle tanks through a two-way selector cock in the deliver) pipe nearby. (For management of auxiliary tank and pump see para. 38.) The oil dilution valves arc operated by two pushbuttons, one for each engine, on the electrical panel aft of the cockpit.

9. Oil tank low-level indicators.—Two red warning lights (16), one for each main oil tank, are fitted on the pilot's instrument panel and a duplicate pair on the rear side of the wing spar. These light up when the oil reaches a dangerously low level and give warning that the handpump must be used to replenish the main tanks.

MAIN SERVICES

10. Hydraulic system

(i) Mk. III and X aircraft.—Two engine-driven hydraulic pumps are mounted on the port engine; one pump operates the two gun turrets and the other pump supplies the following general services: Undercarriage Flaps

Bomb doors

Carburettor air-intake shutters Windscreen wipers.

(ii) Mk. XI, XII. XIII and XIV aircraft.—There are three pumps driven by the port engine, one pump supplies the services listed above, a second operates the rear gun turret, and the third pump operates the front gun turret on Mk. XI and XIII aircraft and the mid-under turret on Mk. XII and XIV aircraft.

(iii) All Marks.—A handpump (81) to the right of the pilot's seat will operate any of the general services through the normal lines if the engine-driven pump has failed, or if the port engine is stopped. If the normal hydraulic system fails to operate these services by either the engine-driven pump or the handpump, the undercarriage may be lowered by an emergency hydraulic system (see pan. 66)

11. Pneumatic system.—Two compressors are driven by the starboard engine; one operates the automatic controls and the other supplies pressure for the wheel brakes and the fuel jettison valves. A suction pump is driven by each engine, one pump operating the blind flying instrument panel and the other acting as a reserve. A pump changeover cock control (84) is fitted to the right of the seat and there is a gauge (25) to the right of the centre instrument panel.

12. Electrical system

(i) Mk. III aircraft.—A 1,500 watt generator on the starboard engine supplies 24 volts D.C. for the following services:

All lighting

Engine starting

Propeller feathering and pitch changing (Rotol electric type)

Pressure-head heating

Fuel contents gauges

Undercarriage and flap indicators

Radio and beam approach

Fire-extinguisher system

Camera heating

Oil dilution valves

Operation of flotation gear

Release and inflation of dinghy

(ii) Mk. X aircraft.—Two 1,500 watt generators, one on each engine, supply 24 volts D.C. for the above general services.

(iii) Mk. XI and XIII aircraft.—One 1,000 watt generator on each engine supplies 24 volts D.C. for the above general services and A.C. for the special radio equipment.

(iv) Mk. XII and XIV aircraft.—Two 1,500 watt generators, one on each engine, supply 24 volts D.C. for the above general services. In addition, the port engine generator supplies A.C. for the special radio equipment. D.C. for the Leigh light is supplied by a separate generator on the starboard engine.

(v) All Marks.—The external battery socket for ground starting of the engines is under a hinged panel, on the starboard side of the fuselage, below the main plane leading edge. The ground/ flight switch is on the starboard side of the fuselage, just forward of the main spar.


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